Shide was abandoned by parents when he was born. And when Fenggan was traveling between Guoqing Temple, he found Hanshan, picked him up and took him back to the temple, where the monks raised him.

Hanshan once asked Shide,“In this world, if one who slanders me, bullies me, insults me, ridicules me, disparages me, belittles me, offends me, or deceives me, how should I deal with him?”

Shide answered,“Just tolerate him, let him be, avoid him, respect him, ignore him, and wait for a few years to see what becomes of him.”

The brilliant question and answer contains the wisdom of interpersonal relationship and dealing with the world. Even after more than a thousand year, this story is still popular and applicable.

This picture depicts Hanshan and Shide, two Masters who are renowned poets and Buddhists in the history of Buddhism.

Hanshan and Shide are two legendary Buddhists in Tang dynasty. Their behaviors are weird and they talk different than others. They were said to be the emanations of Manjusri and Samantabhadra and popularly associated with friendship and happy marriage. They are typically depicts as boys to represent peace and harmony.

Both Hanshan and Shide are mortal flesh; not immortals. Hanshan is a poet and a Buddhist. He met Shide in Qinguo Temple where he used to be a cook. Hanshan and Shide both have profound knowledge in Buddhism and literature so they frequently make poems together. And the collected poems of Hanshan, Hanshan Shiji, were total of three volumes. Hanshan and Shide were officially canonized as "He Saint" in the first year of Yongzhen rule in Qing dynasty. Since then "He-He Er Xian," meaning Two gods of Harmony and Union, have been well-known to the world.

he structure of this painting is based on a S-curve. The corridors, railings, doors and walls are sophisticatedly drawn by brush. A variety of plants are grown in the garden by delicate painting skills with proper distances. The figures are portrayed with detailed brushstrokes, colored with light green. The eyes, eyebrows, makeups, hair accessories and clothes of the maids suggest they are from Song dynasty. The vivid and skilled brushstrokes and the illustration of backdrop are amazing to the eye.

The painting is themed on the birthday celebration of Song dynasty with the backdrop of furnitures and adornments typical of Tang and Song dynasties. The pine and cypress trees on the right side echoes with the Tahu stone on the left side, implying the theme of birthday celebration. The folding screen which is written with "longevity" in a variety of fonts clearly expresses the theme. The small folding screen on the left side imitates the typical style of landscape paintings of Song dynasty. The figures, hats and garments are detailed illustrated with smooth lines, while the elegant color design and lively postures vividly interpret the joy of folklife and the custom of birthday celebration.

This picture depicts the leisure life scene of maids and harem appreciating the chrysanthemum in the Autumn. The glamorous garden houses, pavilions, rails, doors and walls are typical architectures of Song dynasty and painted in brushstrokes. We can see the detailed illustration of the swaying of banana leaves, Tahu stone and the curves of roads. The characters are outlined with skilled brushstrokes, and the facial expressions of each figure differ; while the smooth lines, rich colors and elegant backdrop show us a wonderful scene of autumn.

The structure of the painting imitates the style of Song dynasty that leaves a blank area in the corner. The architecture of the left bottom mirrors the tree of right upper side. The situation portrayed the echoes between god and the mortal Taoist. The facial expressions of the figures, clothes and garments as well as the furnishing props are detailed illustrated. In the picture, we can see the Toaist holding a sword and chanting mantra to worship god. The Taoist and the scholar both look up to the sky and toward the direction of their gaze, we can see god gently arrives with an instrument in hand and sitting on a cloud.

This picture is a depiction of Li Bai's poem, "The Spring Evening Banquet at the Peach and Pear Blossom Garden." The poetry says: "The universe is a temporary inn for all living things. Time is the transit visitors over the span of one hundred generations. This drifting life is like a dream. There is too little time to enjoy the pleasure of living." We see a group of friends in a lush garden, surrounded by blossoming trees. They are having a banquet while drinking wine and composing poetry. The picture is painted with meticulous brushstrokes with elegant colors. Despite of its small size, it is a marvellous picture.

The picture depicts the reunion of the seven sages and five servants beside them, with rocks and bamboo grove as backdrop.We can tell from the details that this painting is about the "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove."  During the Wei and the Jing dynasties (240-250), Ji Kang, Liu Ling, Ruan Ji, Ruan Xian, Xiang Xiu, Wang Rong and Shan Tao, often sang songs, drank wines, discussed Neo-Taoism together in the bamboo grove located in Shanyang County (now it is called Xiuwu County) . And the world calls them "the seven sages."

This painting, a traditional Chinese literati painting, is themed on scholars, with the backdrop of their social practice of poetry exchange. The artwork depicts the wisdom and knowledge of these  scholars, and their sentiment towards nature, transcendent and high integrity.  The work is illustrated with meticulous brushstrokes, which create a sense of beauty and elegancy to the picture; and the balanced color applications also make the image very harmonious.

This painting depicts the scenery where Emperor goes for a spring outing. The Emperor, dressed in yellow robe, is riding a white horse and surrounded by scholars, officials and maids. The backdrop of the landscape is painted with coral-red glaze and a little green pigments is applied on top of the red rocks to make the image peaceful and elegant.

The picture depicts harvests in Jiangnan, one of the most prosperous regions in China blessed with wealth in natural resources. This picture conveys a message for peace. It expresses several meanings, includes the eternity of the Emperor's reign, clear and bright politics and peace in the world.

The composition is a river cross-strait. The front bank shows the scholars are about to leave after a get-together.  The upper side of the picture depicts the place where scholars having a reunion. They play chess, sing songs and drink tea among pine trees. Pine trees here symbolize the noble integrity of scholars.

This picture is a depiction of springtime. During springtime, peaches blossoms area in full bloom. Scholars get together appreciate the blossoms and share poems. Although the picture is small in size, there are plenty of figures, and the rocks, grass and trees are illustrated with meticulously brushstrokes. It seems very fine and exquisite.

It is painted with water and ink. Pine and crane symbolize longevity. The painting is portrayed with ink color, highlighted the serenity and elegance.

This calligraphy work emphasizes the importance of Chinese culture. And the essence of Chinese culture is no more than confucian ethics, Buddhism benevolence, and Taoist open-mindedness. Now is the age of Chinese cultural renaissance. Everyone should be more aware of our traditional cultures.

This picture is a depiction of Buddha and his two disciples, which are painted with meticulous brushstrokes and bright colors. Legend has it that Buddha once held up a flower and just admired it in his hand. All the other disciples did not know how to react, but Mahakasyapa smiled slightly. Buddha saw that and said: "I possess the true Dharma eye, the marvelous mind of Nirvana, the true form of the formless, the subtle dharma gate that does not rest on words or letters but is a special transmission outside of the scriptures. This I entrust to Mahakasyapa," and stated Mahakasyapa as one who truly understood him and was worthy to be his successor.

Samantabhadra (Sanskrit, "Universal Worthy") is a bodhisattva associated with practice and meditation. Samantabhadra is usually depicted in a trinity on the right side of Shakyamuni Buddha, riding an elephant with six pairs of tusks. White elephant is a symbol of noble and is usually the mount of king.

Bhaisajyaguru is the Buddha of healing and medicine. He is named after glass in Chinese, to metaphorize a clean territory without pollution. He is described as curing those suffering people with medicines. The picture is illustrated with meticulous brushstrokes and bright colors. The main figure is Bhaisajyaguru; he is surrounded by Four Heavenly Kings; Suryaprabha and Candraprabha are standing beside him. The Twelve Heavenly Generals, the protective deities of Bhaisajyaguru, are standing in front of him. The Twelve Heavenly Generals also represent the Twelve Vows of Bhaisajyaguru. Each of them has a Chinese zodiac on forehead, which also represents different divisions of the day, meaning the protection from Bhaisajyaguru is at all times.

Manjushri Bodhisattva is one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas of Buddhism. He symbolizes wisdom. In this picture, he is depicted as wielding a sword in his right hand, which represents the realization of transcendent wisdom through cutting down ignorance. He holds a sutra in his left hand, representing his attainment of ultimate realization. Manjushri is depicted as riding a blue lion. This image is originated from a tantric corpus of Buddhism in Tang dynasty. In the left lower corner, there is Sudhanakumara; while in the right lower corner, there is who is Kingdom of Khotan; both are the dependents of Manjushri. And the image of the two dependents is generated from a story in Tang dynasty.

Dhrtarastra is one of the Four Heavenly Kings. His skin is white, and he wears an armor with pipa in hands. Pipa represents justice and a feature for god of music. Later, the idea of tuning pipa was translated into harmony (due to its pronunciation in Chinese) and guardian of the lands. 

Skanda is one of the most important  Protectors of the Law in Buddhism. He is commonly seen wearing an armor and wielding vajras as weapon, standing with majestic expressions. He is placed behind Maitreya in the central hall and faces main hall to protect Bodhimanda. Skanda is also often seen beside the main statue in the main hall.

In the picture, the main figure is Cundi. She wears a crown and she has 18 arms wielding different implements with specific meaning. There is halo radiating over her head, with auspicious clouds and upacara on top of the picture. She is seated on lotus in lotus position. Four statues are standing at the two sides of Cundi. Two gods on the top row wielding scepters are the "Two Dragon Kings." Four gods wielding different implements in the middle row are "The Four Heavenly Kings." Two kongorikishi, who are half-naked, wear long skirts and wield vajras on the front row, are Hengha Er Jiang.  

The work is painted with delicate and meticulous brushstrokes with bright colors. Sakyamuni sits on a lotus while the complexion of him is clear and radiant. He put his right hand in front of his chest, seems like he is preaching. While his left hand is placed in front of abdomen demonstrating dhyana mudra. A halo is radiating behind him, with the backdrop of gradient purple blue ornamented with five-colored auspicious clouds. We can also see a pot placed with treasures consecrated to Sakyamuni Buddha is painted in the lower corner.

The image of this Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva is inspired from Japanese Buddhism. With shaved head and a monk robe, Ksitigarbha holds a khakkhara (staff) in his right hand and a bowl in his left hand, while flame-liked halo radiates over him. He stands barefooted on a lotus next to white lions. The picture illustrates Ksitigarbha taking responsibility for the instruction of all beings in the six worlds. The khakkhara means to force open the gates of hell, and the bowl means to give foods to hungry ghosts, while the flame-liked halo stands for his powerful strength.

There are numerous myths about Bodhidharma. Legend has it that Bodhidharma boarded a merchant ship in India and got to China by the ship. Therefore, the background of the picture is set at an ocean to credit Bodhidharma as the transmitter of Buddhism to China. The image of  Bodhidharma riding a rock to cross the ocean is not seen in any classical reference. We can tell that it is an ingenuity created by Xia Jing Shan.

The facial features and skin of Bodhidharma  are painted with meticulous brushstrokes. And it uses cinnabar to draw a halo behind his back. Bodhidharma is dressed in a loose long robe. The picture adopts impressionism to express quivering lines (in painting of floating objects) and the characteristics of yin and yang. And then it applies cinnabar on the painting to fully demonstrate the shades of cinnabar.

We can see Arhat shows human nature in this picture. Sitting on a mat, his face is rounded and he frowns his forehead. His eyes are big and nose is tall. There is a bowl behind him. At this time, he just finished meditation and is ready to get up. So he puts his hands up and mouth wide-opened as if yawning; very amusing.

Bodhidharma was the founder of Chinese Zen Buddhism. He was the third son of a great Indian king. He learned from Master after he became a monk. He arrived at Guanzhou from India by boat during the Northern and Southern dynasties and then he traveled north to Northern Wei. Bodhidharma's teachings and practice centered on meditation and zen. He did not write text and did not teach outside of class. Bodhidharma was later persecuted during Eastern Wei dynasty (536) and died from intoxication. He was buried in Mount Xion'er (now Yiyang County, Henan). But "Transmission of the Lamp" stated that Bodhidharma faked his death and came back to India. It is said that a messenger from Wei met him three years after his death. The messenger saw Bodhidharma left for India with a shoe in his hand. The picture is a portrait of Bodhidharma leaving for India.

In the picture, we can see Arhat is dressed in untidy clothes. He bents down, raises his right hand and scratches his back with an implement. His expressions are very intoxicated and contented. The relaxed and carefree characteristics of Arhat reflect the temperament of human saint.

Traditionally, there is no such image as Arhat Taming the Dragon in Indian Buddhism. The subject is originated in Chinese Buddhism. Dragon and tiger are well-liked motifs for Taoist paintings and creations. During the Song dynasty, the three religions, Indian Buddhism, Chinese Buddhism and Taoism, began to incorporate and influence one another. Hence, Buddhism takes in the motifs of dragon and tiger and establishes them into Arhat Taming the Dragon and Arhat Taming the Tiger.

The composition of the work is of two sections. The foreground and the middle ground are depictions of different subjects. The foreground depicts blooming peonies in various colors, which creates a lively and upbeat atmosphere. The middle ground illustrates Arhat sitting on a rock with a incense burner placed next to him. The colors are simple and neat. It displays the tranquility and the relaxed joy of Arhat which is explicitly different from the colorful blossoms in the foreground.

In this picture, Arhat is seated on a chair with scrolls of scriptures placed on a desk beside him. He points with his right hand toward the middle of the scene, and his left hand holds the handle of an incense burner. It looks like he is preaching. While a boy servant in the right-lower corner of the picture puts his hands together and stand in front of Arhat. The picture does not indicate who Arhat is preaching to; it is left to our imagination. 

This picture is themed on "Arhat taming a dragon," a popular story since Ming and Qing dynasty. We can see Arhat is mounting on a rock and looking at a dragon up in the air with relaxed facial expressions. A celestial maiden, holding a bottle of which clear smoke spilling out, appears in front of him. The dragon that showing up in the air indicates the theme of "Arhat taming a dragon." 

In the picture, Arhat mounts on a rock, dressed in a monk robe with scrolls of scriptures in hands. He seems very concentrated on reading the scriptures. A servant, holding a wooden box that puts scrolls of scriptures, looks at Arhat and stands behind. The picture is painted with meticulous brushstrokes and colored with ink and water and ocher. The top of the rock is painted with malachite green while the railings at the backdrop are painted with bright red. The combinations of colors that exist in harmony are pleasing to the eye.

In this picture, Zhong Kui looks short; his facial expressions are hideous, while his movements are comical. This picture shows a sense of ugliness and humor. In aesthetics, "ugliness" is also an artistic expression. In contrast to "beauty," the image of Zhong Kui often displays a sense of ugliness to draw people's attention.

Zhong Kui Marries off His Little Sister is a popular theme in Chinese literature and folktales. It is commonly used as an auspicious and decorative pattern. The figures are illustrated with bright colors, with ink and water landscapes as backdrop, which makes the figures more eye-catching.

Zhong Kui is illustrated in the middle of the picture, while numerous ghosts carry heavy things for Zhong Kui, the King of Ghosts, and help him move house. While the sister of Zhong rides an ox following behind. The picture is painted with meticulous brushstrokes and light colors, as well as ink and water. The color hues are quiet and tranquil.

This picture portraits Zhong Kui sits on a rock, holding a glass of wine in hand with a jug of wine placed behind him. Zhong Kui is surrounded by pine trees and a crane. This image has two meanings. First, it is a representation of the integrity and virtues of a gentleman, which is evergreen and everlasting. He resides in rural, focuses on landscapes and befriends pines and cranes. Second, it represents an auspicious meaning of longevity (due to the pronunciation of "pine" and "crane" in Chinese).

In traditional Buddharupa, there is an Arhat who tames a tiger, but there is not an image about Zhong Kui taming a tiger. However, Xia Jing Shan combines the traditional Buddharupa with folktales and creates a new image and expression.

According to a Taoist book “History of the Immortals,” Zhong Kui, born in Zhongnan, Shanxi, was a talented prodigy. In early Tang dynasty, he took part in the imperial examinations at the capital. However, he was rejected due to his disfigured appearance. In anger, Zhong Kui committed suicide upon the palace steps. The emperor buried him and dressed him in the costumes of an official, a red long robe, equal to the rank of "jinshi" at that time. In this picture, Zhong Kui wears an official hat and a red long robe with a fan in his right hand. And he sits on top of a rock in yard, watching his subordinates, two little ghosts, playing chess game. The picture is painted with meticulous brushstrokes and bright colors while the rock Zhong Kui sits on is delineated with splendid golden outlines.

The picture depicts Zhong Kui after drinking. We can see Zhong Kui, improperly dressed, is half-drunk and half-sober. He is trying to draw his sword while his steps are falter. A red bat is illustrated on the upper right corner, which symbolizes "bring good fortune." ("bat" in Chinese puns with "good fortune")

In this picture, Avalokitesvara is dressed in white flowing robe and sits on a lotus. She holds a water jar containing pure water in her left hand, and holds a willow branch in her right hand to sprinkle the divine nectar of life upon the devotees as to bless them with physical and spiritual peace. The Eighteen Arhats are standing beside her with auspicious clouds as backdrop. The image of Arhats standing next to Avalokitesvara was originated in Ming dynasty and has been very popular to date.

The image and the posture of Avalokitesvara in this picture is inspired by the paintings of Muqi Fachang, a Chinese painter who lived in the 13th century, around the end of the Southern Song dynasty. The posture of Avalokitesvara and the atmosphere of the picture is full of zen-connotations. Avalokitesvara is meditation while sitting on withered lotus leaves, which adds a sense of tranquility and zen to this picture.


Avalokitesvara mounts a rock in a lotus position with rocks and bamboo grove as backdrop, structuring the image of "Avalokitesvara in Purple Bamboo Grove," which is one of the variations of the sculptures of Avalokitesvara in Putuo Mountain. However, drawing six cranes beside Avalokitesvara is not a Buddhist tradition; it is a symbol of an auspicious pattern originated from Ming and Qing dynasty. It is with ingenuity that Xia Jing Shan combines the traditional image of Avalokitesvara with auspicious patterns.

We can see Avalokitesvara, dressed in divine clothes, wears keyura and a crown on head. She sits on a lotus in lotus position and holds a lotus in hand. This image of Avalokitesvara is called St. Guan Yin in Tangmi (a  tradition of Vajrayana Buddhism that flourished since Tang dynasty). While Tientai Buddhism calls it Mercy Guan Yin, which is the literal meaning of Arya-avalo Kitesvara in Sanskrit. Avalokitesvara is the representation of all intrinsic natures.

Cundi, dressed in white, holds Buddhist prayer beads and stands amongst lotuses. Lotus stands for clean, unstained and holy since ancient times. Therefore, the beings from Buddhism pure land are mostly born from lotus. Avalokitesvara also mounts on lotus, which means she is different from others human beings who are born in the world with lusts in mind.

In the picture, Avalokitesvara, dressed in white, sits on blue lotus comfortably. Avalokitesvara rests her chin against her hands and tilts her head, as if she is meditating. This posture is called Thinking  Avalokitesvara; it represents that she is looking for the voices that call for help. In the lower corner of the picture, Dragon King presents a treasure, and a parrot holds prayer beads in mouth. This image is called Nan Hai Avalokitesvara. Xia Jing Shan combined the two images and integrated them in one picture.

In the picture, we can see Avalokitesvara is seated on a rock, and a boy worshiper, standing on auspicious clouds beneath, puts his hands up and slightly bends to Avalokitesvara, respectfully asking for knowledge of Buddhist principles. This image is originated from "Avatamsaka Sutra" and became popular since Song dynasty.

In this picture, Avalokitesvara holds Buddhist prayer beads in hands and sits on a rock. She was surrounded by green landscapes and she looks at her young worshiper beneath. The young worshiper pray with his hands held together. The image of young worshiper praying to Avalokitesvara is is originated from Avatamsaka Sutra. In the sutra, it says Mount Potalaka is a beautiful place with magnificent landscapes, and the trees and grasses there always shine. It is a holy place where Avalokitesvara resides. The sutra says that a young kid often visits the mountain and to learn from Avalokiteshvara.

Avalokitesvara sits on a rock among splendid golden-outlined landscape. She lowers her gaze as if meditating and lays eyes on the worshipers. Dragon King appears beneath the rock. Dragon King is usually described as a subordinate to Avalokitesvara because Avalokitesvara has the features of a deity of water in the beliefs of ancient India. The hues of the work display a tranquil and peaceful ambience.

This picture is painted with dark ink and supplemented with light colors, creating a tranquil and deep visual effect. The picture is a depiction of Mount Potalaka, where Avalokitesvara resides, and a young boy comes to visit. The boy worshiper puts his hands together and seeks the advice of Avalokitesvara politely. Avalokitesvara mercily explains the principles of Buddhism for him.

What is the essence of culture? What is the purpose of culture. Culture enables an ethnic group to develop a strong bound of power and sentiments. Culture is not for entertainment and not a slogan. Culture is not false connections.What is the essence of culture? What is the purpose of culture. Culture enables an ethnic group to develop a strong bound of power and sentiments. Culture is not for entertainment and not a slogan. Culture is not false connections.

What is the biggest achievement in life? It shall not be wealth but the contribution a person can make to the society. The biggest and most important contribution of a person shall be made to the cultivation of ethical culture.


Culture influences morals and helps to enhance spirit power. The westerners from the developed countries are content with benefits of materialism and they are unlikely to understand the profound Chinese culture. Chinese culture consists of philosophical practices and true meanings of life.

What is the essence of culture? Buddhist art is the essence and the ultimate goal is to find one’s true self, the supreme “Buddha Mind.”

Culture is the extended spiritual treasure and the highest moral culture requires us to work together to protect and to avoid the loss of culture.

Culture is the soul of people and the inevitable mate of spirit. Culture dominates spiritual education and culture produces true sentiments from the bottom of people’s heart. Culture is a supreme science that enhance morals. 

The 21st Century is that of the east, that of China, that of Beijing, that of culture, that of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, that of art culture, and that of literature highlights. 

Traditional culture is one of the important pillars that enables the ethnic groups in China to strive. Culture reflects the completeness of an ethnic group, a country, or even behaviors and morals of people living in one region and regulates social behavior and spirit of people. 

Culture coexists with people and is the inevitable mate. Culture helps us to develop sentiments and culture allows spirit to transcend time and space. Culture develops the sincere inner worshiping mind.

Culture is a science of thinking that optimizes the spirit and cultivates morals of people. 

Culture is soul of people.

Culture is intangible treasure that saves people and the world. Overseas Chinese are Chinese birth or descents.

Everyone has Buddhahood somewhere deep inside and will be future Buddha. This is the true essence of culture.

Culture is the soul of people, the spirit literacy of a nation. The purpose of culture is to optimize the spirit of people, a science of thinking to promote morals and merits.

Virtue is cultural treasure; mindfulness is the key for an ordinary people to become Buddha. Culture is soul of a nation.

Art benefiting people cultivates virtue and like clear water enriches the minds of Chinese generation after generation. 

Culture contains educational power for moral cultivation. Culture has the vigor to help people to develop true sentiments from the bottom of heart.

Buddhist culture has the vigor to develop people’s virtue and enable our spirit to transcend time and space. Our soul and life cannot be apart from religious culture. 

The essence of Chinese culture is closely linked to change of five elements of Yin and Yang. “Endless” is the core essence, the original philosophy that has constant changes. The originality is Buddhahood neither dying or being and neither dirty nor clean, found everywhere in the solar system. 

Culture with rich contents enables spirit transcend space and time, a true treasure. 

Buddha painting inspires us to surpass achievements of ordinary arts. Painting Buddha is a way to help us to be concentrated. 

Buddhist painting art is civilization result of national culture teaching people to do more good than evils; moral cultivation intangibly helps to develop the foundation for a harmony society.



The impressive ability to get hold oneself enables us to transcend our spiritual ability and get rid of conceiving troubles. Who shall take the responsibility to promote this divine art and when this divine art can be known by each of us?

Buddhist paintings cultivate our virtues from the bottom of heart without using any languages. Buddhist paintings are achievements of national cultural glory. 

Artworks that can help people to cultivate morals to become Buddha are true treasure and divine art creation. When looking at the painting art of a particular era, we are able to understand its culture and moral cultivation.  

Buddhist painting illustrates the influence of vitality on national culture development and inspires people to develop morals.


Painting is the mate of people’s life that helps people to develop sentiments. Arts in East play an unique role.


Buddhist paintings are divine art that develops people's true sentiments.


Buddhist paintings are treasures of national culture.

Divine paintings are treasures of national culture.

Divine paintings are treasures of national culture.

The Guan Yin painting this year requires the faithfulness and after viewing it for a while, you will have the wisdom to be true to yourself. This is perceiving the five aggregates into emptiness to get close to Guan Yin.   

Buddhism at the beginning was not a religion. Instead, it has been the common treasure of all humans. Through Buddhist paintings, we see Sumeru that can lead us to understand Buddhism.

Painting Buddha require techniques that ordinary painters cannot master.

Many scientists, philosophers, and religionists have spent all their life studying theories but most of them are like a blind man feeling an elephant. They cannot identify the real problem.

God is watching or hearing what you are doing. The net of heaven has large meshes, but it lets nothing through.

Cause and effect is the natural philosophy of nature. If the reward is not forthcoming, it is because the time has not yet come.


Untruth can be undone and emptiness is the true Buddhahood.


The themes of calligraphy works emphasize on how Buddharupa (statues of Buddha) purifies human beings. Through bowing down to Buddha, we can eliminate perseverance, arrogance, the cycle of life and death of beings, and all the troubles.

The structure of each word of Xia Jing Shan's calligraphy works is varied. We can see the strokes, such as moves, turns, and crochets are featured with plump brushwork, while the others exhibit lean and think brushworks. The whole spirit of the work is rich and smooth.

The work is about education. It says contentment is the only real wealth; leisure time is valuable; the mind of Buddha is great compassion. At first sight, the words may seem plain without polishment. But the straightforward words are like a sharp warning to busy people in the modern world. It is the art that we need to take some time to think about.